Situated 322 m. above sea level in the heart of Tuscany, this town is built on three hills, maintaining intact its medieval appearance characterized by narrow winding streets and noble buildings.
Of Etruscan origin, it was a Roman colony with the name of Sena Julia; its importance grew in the Middle Ages, first as the seat of Lombard gastalds, and then of Counts under the Carolingian domination. After a long period of episcopal dominion (9th-11th century) the town reached a peak of power after becoming a municipality (1147), undertaking a policy of expansion towards the bordering territories. Confrontation with Florence was inevitable and the struggle lasted, with various vicissitudes, until 1555, when after a long siege, Siena was conquered by the Florentines, losing its autonomy and becoming part of the Duchy, sharing its fortunes until unification with Italy.
Events: Palio of Contrade (2nd July and 16th August), St. Caterina's Celebration (29th April), Musical Weeks in Siena (September).